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灞河流域非点源污染最佳管理措施模拟研究

2015-11-06 09:21  倪永明,胥彦玲

 

【摘要】 运用SWAT模型对水土保持、减少化肥农药施用量、减少表层土壤施肥量比例、退耕还林及综合措施对于不同非点源污染在灞河流域的消减效果进行了模拟。结果表明:(1)水保措施对NPDDT的削减效果最高可达44.4%,相对而言对于溶解磷的削减效果不是很明显。(2)减少施肥量措施对溶解P、总PNO3-N的削减率相对较高,而对于其它指标的削减效果不是很明显;减少农药施用量措施对DDT的削减效果较好,削减率可达50.92%(3)减少表层土壤施肥量占总施肥量的比例措施对溶解P、总P的削减效果较为明显,而对于其它指标的削减效果不是很明显。(4)退耕还林措施对于各项指标都有着明显的削减作用。(5)综合措施对于各项指标均有着很好的削减作用,总体看来综合措施可大大减少流域内的非点源污染负荷,对于改善流域水环境质量可起到巨大的作用。研究为灞河流域非点源污染最佳管理措施的实施提供了明确实际的决策支持。 

【关键词】 非点源污染 SWAT模型 灞河流域 控制措施 

【基金】 国家自然科学基金项目(31240047);北京自然科学基金项目(5143023)

Best  management  measures  research  on  the  BaHe  watershed  non-point  source pollution   

NI Yong-ming1 ,XU Yang-ling2*

(1 Beijing museum of natural history,Beijing ,100050 ; 2 The institute of Beijing municipal science and technology information ,Beijing ,100044)

 Abstract: At present, China is in the midst of the water pollution constitutes a gradual transition period, the contribution rate of point source pollution gradually decline, the contribution rate of agricultural non-point source pollution is gradually increased This paper uses the SWAT model for soil and water conservation,  reducing  fertilizer  applying  pesticide  content,  reducing  the  proportion  of  surface  soil fertilizer, returning farmland to forest and comprehensive measures nonpoint source pollution control measures in different BaHe basin cut effect is simulated. Of the basic information database for the SWAT model mainly includes spatial database, meteorological data and management measures, etc. Spatial  database  mainly  includes  digital  elevation  model  (DEM),  land  use  map,  soil  type  map, meteorological  data,  including  daily  average  rainfall,  the  highest  and  lowest  temperature,  solar radiation, wind speed and relative humidity, etc., management measures mainly include crop planting and  fertilizing,  farming,  etc.  This  study  on  the  model  in  simulation  process  of  calibration  and verification.  Model  calibration  and  verification  results  is  good,  can  be  used  for  simulation  BaHe watershed  non-point  source  pollution.Results  show  that:  (1)  the  soil  conservation  measures  on  the reduction effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and DDT as high as 44.4%, relative to the cutting effect of dissolved phosphorus is not very obvious. (2) reduce the rate of measures of dissolved phosphorus, total phosphorus, nitrate nitrogen reduction rate is relatively high, while for other indicators of cutting effect is not obvious; Reduction measures applying pesticide content of DDT cutting effect is good, reduction  rate  can  reach  50.92%.  (3)  to  reduce  the  proportion  of  the  total  surface  soil  fertilizer fertilizer measures for the reduction of dissolved phosphorus, total phosphorus effect is more obvious, and  for  other  indicators  of  cutting  effect  is  not  obvious.  (4)  the  measures  for  the  indicators  of  the   returning land from farming to forestry has a clear cut. (5) the comprehensive measures for all the indexes  have  very  good  cutting  effect,  overall  comprehensive  measures  can  greatly  reduce  the nonpoint source pollution load in the basin, for improvement of river basin water environment quality can  play  a  huge  role.  Research  for  best  BaHe  watershed  non-point  source  pollution  management measures of implementation provides a clear practical decision support.

Key words: Non-point source pollution; SWAT model; BaHe basin; Control measures

 

发表于2015年《干旱区地理》3