您现在所在的位置:首页>>科研与收藏>>科研论文

陕西省蓝田县新街遗址全新世鸟类分类学记述

2013-07-11 14:48  张玉光

 

张玉光1,胡松梅2,邵晶2,李志恒3,刘迪1,杨亚长2

1) 北京自然博物馆,北京,100050

2) 陕西省考古研究院,西安,710054

3) 德克萨斯州立大学杰克逊地球科学学院,美国奥斯汀,TX 78712

 

内容提要:2~3年来,陕西省考古研究院科研人员再次对蓝田县的新街遗址进行了抢救性发掘,经过清理整理,发现于新街遗址灰坑、探沟和探方中的全新世鸟类骨骼共70件。鸟类化石均为分散保存骨骼,但此次发现的鸟类骨骼保存不仅数量多,而且形态也较完好,是国内全新世鸟类化石发现记录所罕见的。本文记述了对这批鸟类化石开展形态解剖学的鉴定,并系统完成分类学研究的成果,新街遗址中总计鸟类所属8目、8科、8属,共9种,其中以水生鸟类居多。此外,根据鸟类的生存习性及鸟类骨骼上残存的人工痕迹,还针对新街遗址全新世时期的环境和古人类的生活行为进行了全方位多角度的分析和推理,为新街遗址在传统考古学研究的基础上提供了全新的科学信息和有益的补充。

关键词:分类学;全新世;鸟类化石;新街遗址;陕西蓝田

 

 

 

Taxonomy of the Holocene Birds from the Xinjie Site in Lantian County, Shaanxi Province, China

ZHANG Yuguang 1HU Songmei 2SHAO Jing2LI Zhiheng 3LIU Di 1YANG Yachang2

1Beijing Museum of Natural HistoryBeijing 100050

2) Archaeological Research Institute of Shaanxi ProvinceXi’an 710054

3Jackson School of Geosciences, University of Texas at Austin, TX 78712, USA

 

Abstract: In the last two to three years, researchers from the Archaeological Research Institute of Shaanxi Province made another rescue excavation in the Xinjie archeological site in Lantian County. The new excavation yielded 70 avian specimens from the ash pit, test trench as well as test pit from Xinjie site of Holocene. Although dispersed and disarticulated, the quantity and exquisite preservation of these bird remains were rare among Holocene records from China. These birds are assigned into eight orders, eight families, eight genera and nine species, most of which belong to waterbirds. In addition, based on the bird remains and human marks preserved in the skeletons, we also provided new interpretations of the paleoecology of Xinjie site and the associated ancient human behavior, providing supplementary information in addition to the previous traditional archaeology studies.         

 

Key words: taxonomy; Holocene; fossil birds; Xinjie Site; Shaanxi Lantian

 

1 陕西蓝田县新街遗址地理位置图

Fig.1 Geographic position of the Xinjie site of Lantian County, Shaanxi Province

2 陕西蓝田新街遗址全新世鸟类H385:5(a)H114:1(b)H385:2(c)H385:7(d)H42:3(e)H348:1(f)标本的形态特征

Fig.2 Morphological features of specimens H385:5(a), H114:1(b), H385:2(c), H385:7(d), H42:3(e), H348:1(f) of Holocene birds from Xinjie site in Lantian, Shaanxi

3 陕西蓝田新街遗址全新世鸟类H333:3(a)G6:1(b)G21:1(c)H29:1-2(d)标本的形态特征

Fig.3 Morphological features of specimens H333:3(a), G6:1(b), G21:1(c), H29:1-2(d) of Holocene birds from Xinjie site in Lantian, Shaanxi

4  陕西蓝田新街遗址全新世鸟类H38:1(a)标本与现生雕鸮右尺骨(b)对比

Fig.4 The comparison of specimen H38:1(a) of Holocene birds from Xinjie site in Lantian, Shaanxi with the right ulna of living Bubo bubo (b)

5 陕西蓝田新街遗址全新世鸟类H299:1标本形态观察        

Fig.5 Morphological features of specimen H299:1 of Holocene birds from Xinjie site in Lantian, Shaanxi

6 陕西蓝田新街遗址中秃鹫的部分骨骼标本 

Fig.6 Partial skeletons of vulture from Xinjie site in Lantian, Shaanxi

7 陕西蓝田新街遗址全新世鸟类H355:1(a)H91:1(b)H291:2(c)标本形态对比

Fig.7 Comparative anatomy of specimens H355:1(a)H91:1(b) and H291:2(c) of Holocene birds from Xinjie site in Lantian, Shaanxi

8 陕西蓝田新街遗址全新世鸟类H344:1标本的形态学特征

Fig.8 Morphological features of specimen H344:1 of Holocene birds from Xinjie site in Lantian, Shaanxi

9 陕西蓝田新街遗址全新世鸟类H355:2(a)G22:3(b)T0215:1(c)标本形态特征

Fig.9 Morphological features of specimen H355:2, G22:3,and T0215:1 of Holocene birds from Xinjie site in Lantian, Shaanxi

10 陕西蓝田新街遗址全新世鸟类T0113:2(a)T0114:13(b)标本与现生大鸨左跗跖骨(c)对比

Fig.10  The comparison of specimensT0113:2(a)T0114:13(b)) of Holocene birds from Xinjie site in Lantian, Shaanxi with the tarsometatarsus of living Otis tarda (c)

11 陕西蓝田新街遗址全新世鸟类T0503:3(a)T0503:4(b)标本形态特征

Fig.11 Morphological features of specimenT0503:3(a) and T0503:4(b) of Holocene birds from Xinjie site in Lantian, Shaanxi

12陕西蓝田新街遗址全新世鸟类G13:1标本上的人工痕迹

Fig.12 Artificial mark of specimen G13:1 of Holocene birds from Xinjie site in Lantian, Shaanxi

 

 

发表于《地质论评》201359(1):149-158.