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基于形态对比和统计分析的中生代鸟类栖息行为的识别和判断

2010-11-15 16:00  张玉光

 

张玉光12 ,刘迪23,李志恒4,李岩5,刘庆国23

1)北京自然博物馆,中国北京,100050

2中国科学院脊椎动物进化系统学重点实验室,中国北京,100044

3)中国科学院古脊椎动物与古人类研究所,中国北京,100044

4美国德克萨斯州立大学杰克逊地球科学学院,美国奥斯丁,德州78712

5甘肃省博物馆,中国兰州,730050

内容提要:鸟类栖息行为是鸟类重要的生活习性,与鸟类后肢骨骼的形态结构之间存在密切的适应演化关系,而中生代鸟类栖息行为的分析推断也是古鸟类学研究的热点。文中通过对大量现生鸟类的后肢骨骼系统进行形态学对比、统计学分析,分别以后肢3块骨骼的长度变化、跗跖骨远端跖骨滑车的特征差异、第趾趾节长度变化规律和第脚爪爪弧的弧度大小为研究对象,并与其对应的栖息行为分别进行分析判断,然后将判断特征和有效变量运用于中生代鸟类栖息行为的推理中。通过系统的分析研究,对中生代鸟类的栖息行为得出如下的推断:大量基干鸟类的栖息习性是以攀援为主,只有少数可以树栖生活,反鸟类的栖息习性十分接近树栖鸟类,今鸟类的栖息行为兼有树栖、地栖的习性。

关键词:形态特征;统计分析;栖息行为;后肢骨骼;中生代;古鸟类

 

The Perching Habit of Mesozoic Birds Based on Morphological Comparison and Statistical Analysis: Characteristics and Patterns

ZHANG Yuguang 12LIU Di 23LI Zhiheng 4LI Yan 5LIU Qingguo 23

1Beijing Museum of Natural HistoryBeijingChina100050

2Key Laboratory of Evolutionary Systematics of Vertebrates

Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina100044

3Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology

Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina100044

4Jackson School of Geosciences, University of Texas at Austin, TX 78712, USA

5Gansu MuseumLanzhouChina730050

Abstract: The avian perching behavior is crucial for birds. There are close evolutionary relationship in adaptation between the shape and structure of avian hind limb bones. In addition, the analysis and deduction for perching behavior in Mesozoic birds is a hot research field of fossil birds. In this paper, by contrasting the morphological variations and statistic analysis of the hind limb bones in abundant living birds, we focus on the length variation of hindlimbs, the characteristic diversity of metatarsal trochlea in distal tarsometatarsus, the phalangeal length variation in pedal middle digit and the claw curvature of middle digital claw and compare them with corresponded perching behavior. Then, we apply discriminative characteristic and valid variable to infer Mesozoic birds’ perching behavior. By systematically analyzing the perching behavior of Mesozoic birds, We reach the conclusion that large numbers of basal birds with perching behavior maily belong to climbing group, and only minority species belong to arboreal life group. The perching behavior of enantiornithines is close to that of arboreal birds. The perching behavior of ornithurines could be arboreal or terrestrial.

 

Key words: morphological characteristics; statistic analysis; perching behavior; hindlimb bones; Mesozoic; fossil birds

 

发表于《地质论评》,2010,56(6):875-884